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Contents for volume 134 (2016)
Highnam under the Guises: The Management of a Vale Estate, 1750–1838Nicholas Herbert11-37

The Highnam estate, near Gloucester, belonged to members of the Guise family, long-established Gloucestershire landowners, from the mid 18th century to the mid 19th. Estate records and plans of the time of Sir John Guise (d. 1794) and his son Sir Berkeley William Guise (d. 1834) reveal in some detail the structural transformation of what was a traditional manor estate. A wholesale reorganization of the pattern of farming was carried through, involving inclosure of the open fields and common meadows, replacement of the system of land tenure, modernization of the estate’s buildings and more profitable management of its parkland and woods.

Iron Age and Romano-British Settlement near Churchdown HillAndrea Burgess, Sarah F. Wyles, Kirsten Egging Dinwiddy and Alistair J. Barclay39-75

In 2012, excavations by Wessex Archaeology in advance of the construction of a water pipeline in Gloucestershire revealed three settlement sites dating to the Early/Middle Iron Age, Late Iron Age and Romano-British periods.

The evidence for earlier Iron Age activity was sparse, but was recovered from all three sites. Unfortunately a lack of chronologically diagnostic pottery and other datable material meant that continuity into later phases could not be established. By the later Iron Age there was a settlement on the low-lying land at the base of the hillfort on Churchdown Hill. Two roundhouses, an enclosure and evidence of domestic and subsistence activity were identified, and the construction of one roundhouse had disturbed the existing grave of an adult male. Radiocarbon analysis indicates that the roundhouse was occupied during the range 120 BC–30 AD (90.4%) at 95% probability, suggesting that the burial dates to the early 2nd century BC. After the Roman conquest the roundhouses were replaced by a rectangular structure on stone foundations and the surrounding fields and enclosures were modified. Occupation appears to have ceased at the end of the 2nd century, possibly due to re-location of the settlement outside of the excavated areas, or further afield to access better transport links such as rivers or roads. It is also noted that Hucclecote villa, which was occupied until the 5th century, lies less than 2 km to the south, and the demise of the native settlement at Churchdown may be linked to changes within the villa estate.

Iron Age Settlement and a Romano-British Cemetery at The Cotswold School, Bourton-on-the-Water: Excavations in 2011Jonathan Hart, Jonny Geber and Neil Holbrook77-111

Excavation on the north-west edge of Bourton-on-the-Water in 2011 found further evidence of the unenclosed Early to Middle Iron Age settlement known from previous work in the vicinity. Three post-built roundhouses and some other structures were found. Radiocarbon and pottery evidence points to abandonment of the settlement by the start of the 2nd century BC. The excavation area lay with the agricultural hinterland of the Romano-British roadside settlement at Bourton, and part of a ditched enclosure was revealed. At least some of the enclosure was given over to human burial in the late Roman period. Within the excavation area 21 extended inhumations were found, six of them placed within stone cists. The human bone assemblage shows a relatively high level of trauma in the burial population, most likely indicative of their harsh physical lifestyle, and the death through weapon trauma of a 26–35 year-old male is a noteworthy and unusual discovery in a rural population from Roman Britain.

A Romano-British Rural Cemetery at Well’s Bridge, Barnwood: Excavations 1998–9Peter Ellis and Roy King113-26

Further work at the Well’s Bridge site recorded by Bernard Rawes in 1971 revealed five 2nd-century cremations set in two separate places within a large enclosure. One of the cremations was of exceptional interest. This was of an adult male, the cremated bone enclosed in a lead cylinder placed within a stone sarcophagus – a find which was unwittingly partially vandalised by an employee of the developer. This feature then became the focal point of a 3rd to 4th-century inhumation cemetery part lying within a rectangular enclosure. Taken with the 1971 findings the evidence is argued to represent a cemetery attached to a villa-type establishment which remains yet to be definitively located.

Iron Age and Roman Settlement at Greet Road, Winchcombe: Excavations in 2007–8 and Evaluation in 2009Paul Nichols127-56

Excavation by Gloucestershire County Council Archaeology Service at Greet Road, Winchcombe, established the presence of settlement dating to the middle to late Iron Age and Romano-British periods, with some evidence for late Iron Age/early Roman continuity. Subsequent evaluation recorded the continuation of the settlement on land to the immediate north. The earliest middle to late Iron Age activity was characterized by small-scale ditched enclosures, which were superseded by a larger ditched enclosure, interpreted as a typical late prehistoric farmstead-type settlement. Recurrent ditch alignments and the presence of grog-tempered pottery suggest an element of continuity from the late Iron Age to the early Roman period, but the main phase of Romano-British activity dates to the mid 2nd century AD, when areas of the site were terraced to create level platforms for the construction of buildings. Reordering and expansion of these buildings was carried out in the late 2nd to early 3rd centuries, but the settlement was in decline by the second half of the 3rd century and abandoned by the beginning of the 4th century.

Prehistoric Settlement and Roman Features on the Periphery of the Possible Villa Complex at Greet Road, WinchcombeAndrew Simmonds and Ken Welsh157-87
Oxford Archaeology undertook a programme of archaeological excavation at Greet Road, Winchcombe, in an area adjacent to a Scheduled Monument that comprises an Iron Age settlement and a Roman settlement that has been interpreted as a possible villa complex. The investigations encircled the west and north sides of the Scheduled Monument and uncovered an isolated Early Neolithic pit and a post-built roundhouse and associated pits dating from the Late Bronze Age, as well as ditched enclosures and field or paddock boundaries associated with the possible villa complex. The Roman features included a stone-lined culvert that may have provided a water supply to the settlement.
Greet Road, Winchcombe: A Possible Roman Villa in ContextAndrew Simmonds and Paul Nichols189-202

Recent development at the northern periphery of Winchcombe has afforded the opportunity to examine a substantial area of the landscape adjoining the west bank of the River Isbourne, which until this point was farmland. In addition to the excavations reported on in this volume, investigations have taken place at 70 Greet Road, 82 Gretton Road, west of Gretton Road and east of Greet Road. The investigations have been undertaken on a piecemeal basis in advance of separate, though adjacent developments, and by several separate organizations, but between them they amount to a more-or-less contiguous area encompassing c.20.5 ha. The remains thus uncovered span the prehistoric and Roman periods, including important evidence for settlement during the Late Bronze Age and Iron Age, but particularly significant is the discovery of a complex of Roman buildings at Greet Road, possibly representing a previously unknown villa, the core of which has been designated as a Scheduled Monument. The results of the two most substantial excavations of this settlement are published in this volume, and the site is considered in its wider context in this paper.

Ralph Waleys (d. 1394): A Gloucestershire ‘New Man’ and Knight of the ShireBridget Wells-Furby203-20

Ralph Waleys is a particularly well-documented example of the phenomenon of a man who raised his social standing by a significant margin through civilian service to a lay magnate. His background was that of the lowest ranks of the gentry, but he joined the service of the lords of Berkeley and rose to the point where he represented Gloucestershire in parliament as well as holding all the other senior positions in the county’s administration as sheriff, justice of the peace and escheator. On the whole the ‘knights of the shire’, who were not all actually knights, were drawn from the upper levels of the county community with a background of local landed ancestry, but this was far from being always the case. Waleys was a newcomer to this society, and he is an unusually good exemplar of his type because of the amount of detail on aspects of his private life available in local sources at Berkeley Castle, Bristol Record Office and Somerset Archives.

Sir John Young (1519–89), Dame Joan Young (1533–1603) and the Great House in BristolJoseph Bettey221-29

The mansion known as The Great House was built on the site of the former Carmelite friary by Sir John Young and his wealthy and well-connected wife Dame Joan, on St Augustine’s Back overlooking the River Frome c.1568. The magnificent house was complete by August 1574, when it provided hospitality for Queen Elizabeth during her week-long visit to Bristol. This account provides details of the Young family and traces the history of their house. It served as a residence until 1653, and thereafter as a sugar factory. In 1710 it was converted into a school founded by Edward Colston. Colston’s School remained in the dockside area until 1861, when it was relocated to Stapleton. The Great House was then demolished and the Colston Hall was erected on the site.

The Avonmouth Light RailwayRichard Coates231-50

The Avonmouth Light Railway Company was a nominally independent railway company operating a short standard-gauge branch line from a point on the Great Western and Midland Railways Joint Committee line near Avonmouth Docks station in Bristol to a Bristol Corporation electricity installation east of the new main entrance to Avonmouth docks in King Road Avenue, and perhaps beyond. This paper contains the first extensive account of its history, an exploration of a problematic detail in that history and a reflection on the methodological interest that recollection of its history presents for historians.

A Lost Place-Name: Godringhill in HenburyRichard Coates251-5

Godringhill is a lost place-name. It was the name of one of five prebends associated with the college of secular priests (canons) at Westbury-on-Trym. The only purposes of this note are to explain the name of Godringhill, which is presumably that of a place, but which does not appear in the historical record except as that of the prebend, and to try to identify its geographical location, to the extent that it had one.

Notes and QueriesDavid J.H. Smith257-68
Archaeological Review 2015Jan Wills269-302

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